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Los Indios : The Indians

"Archaeologists relate the Pueblo to an older Southwest culture known by the term Basket Maker. The entire cultural sequence is called the Anasazi (Navajo, "ancient ones") culture. During the early Basket Maker phase (circa 100BC - AD 500), prehistoric settlements were established in the northern part of the Southwest. The Indians practiced weaving; they lived in caves or built shelters of poles and adobe mud. Pumpkins and corn were grown as a supplement to hunting and the gathering of wild plants. Food was stored in underground pits, often lined with stone slabs. With the addition of a bean crop and the domestication of the turkey, agriculture became more important than hunting and gathering during the Modified Basket Maker period (500-700). Pottery was introduced. The food storage pits developed into semisubterranean houses and ceremonial chambers, and buildings began to take their present connected form."

"The transition from the Basket Maker to the Pueblo culture occurred about 700. Stone construction was adopted, and the connected, now-aboveground houses became larger. The ceremonial chamber developed into the kiva, an underground chamber used for rituals and as a male lodge. Several kinds of corn were grown, and the cultivation of cotton may have been introduced. Pottery was produced in a diversity of shapes and styles. During this period, the Anasazi made their greatest territorial expansion, reaching as far as central Utah, southern Colorado, and a large part of northern Mexico."

"During the Classic Pueblo period (1050-1300), the northernmost regions were no longer occupied, and the population became concentrated in large multistoried, terraced pueblos and in similar villages built in recesses in cliffs. See: Casa Grande National Monument; Chaco Culture National Historical Park; Cliff Dweller; Mesa Verde National Park. Notable advances occurred in pottery and weaving. At the end of this period, many large centers of Pueblo life were abandoned, possibly because of drought or because of invading bands of Navajo and Apache. During the Regressive Pueblo period (1300-1700), many villages inhabited today were founded. Houses became less elaborate, but pottery and weaving continued to develop."

To read more on the history of the Pueblo peoples, visit Pueblo Indians.

Today, there are 4 Pueblos in Santa Fé County:

Pueblo of Nambe Pueblo of San Ildefonso
Route 1 Box 117-BB Route 5 Box 315-A
Santa Fe  NM 87501 Santa Fe  NM 87501
Ph: (505)455-2036 Ph: (505)455-2273
Fax: (505) 455-2038 Fax: (505) 455-7351
Pueblo of Pojoaque Pueblo of Tesuque
Route 11 Box 71 Route 5 Box 360-T
Santa Fe  NM 87501 Santa Fe  NM 87501
Ph: (505)455-2278 Ph: (505)983-2667
Fax: (505) 455-2950 F: (505) 982-2331
Indian Pueblo Cultural Center
2401 12th Street NW
Albuquerque  NM 87104
(505) 843-7270

España y México:  Spain and Mexico

Santa Fé county had been under Spanish rule since 1607, when the Spaniards arrived under Don Juan de Oñate. They had settled Santa Fé in hopes of converting the Indians to Catholocisim.

In 1680, however, the Pueblos under Chief Pope revolted against the Spanish, driving the Spanish out of the area down south to modern-day El Paso, only to be reconquered by the Spanish led by Don Diego de Vargas in 1692. (This conquest being celebrated every Septemeber since 1712 as Fiestas de Santa Fé.)

Mexico seceded from Spain in 1821; thus, Santa Fé became a part of Mexico. During the same year, the Santa Fé trail was opened up by William Becknell, at the end of which stands the Loretto Church.

Los Estados Unidos:  The United States

The United States first laid claim to Santa Fé in 1846 by the United States Army, led by General Stephen Watts Kearney, during the US-Mexican War. In 1848, under the Treaty of Hidalgo, New Mexico was officially ceded to the United States, becoming New Mexico Territory. For a short time, the Confederate Flag flew over Santa Fé, until the Union regained control in the Battle of Glorieta. New Mexico remained a territory until 1912, when it became the 47th State of the United States.

La Capital de Nuevo México:  The Capital of New Mexico

Santa Fé was founded in 1607 by Don Pedro de Peralta as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís (The Royal City of the Holy Faith of St. Francis of Assisi.) It was officially made the original capitol of Nuevo México, then a province of New Spain, in 1610.

Today, it is known simply as Santa Fé, and is both the capitol of the State of New Mexico as well as the county seat of Santa Fé County. At an elevation of almost 7,000 feet and a population of 62,203, it is the 3rd largest arts center in the United States, just behind New York and Los Angeles. It is home to the Georgia O'Keefe Museum, Cathedral Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi, Loretto Chapel, and much more.

Santa Fé County has a population of 137,758 (2005). The county seat is located in Santa Fé.